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Tarkamt n uburkan n Pinatubo deg Filippin

Page history last edited by Taftilt Taliktrunit 13 years, 7 months ago

Sγur Matt Rosenberg 
5 Γuct, 2007 

* Tarkamt: éruption

 


Aburkan n Pinatubo

 

Deg Yunyu n 1991, tella-d terkamt (éruption) taburkanit tameqrant akk deg lqern wis 20 sdeffir n terkamt ay d-iwten deg uburkan n Katmai-Novarupta, deg Alaska, deg 1912. Tarkamt n 1991 d tin n uburkan n Pinatubo, deg tegzirt n Luzon, deg Filippin, yerna aburkan-a yebεed s 90 kan n yikilumitren γef temdint n Manila, tamaneγt (capitale) n tmurt-a. Azal n 800 n medden ay yemmuten deg terkamt-nni, yerna 100.000 n medden niḍen ay yesṛuḥen ixxamen-nsen deg tedyant-a. Tawaγit tuweḍ γer tqacuct deg wass n 15 Yunyu 1991, mi d-yeṭṭerḍeq uburkan-nni yerna yebda yessuffuγ-d tanga (matière). Tarkamt-nnes teṭṭef 9 n tsaεtin. Imir-nni, aburkan n Pinatubo yessuffeγ-d imelyunen n yiṭunen n wedyuksid n ukebri (dioxyde de soufre), yerna aya yegla-d ula s ussenqes n teẓγelt (température) deg umaḍal deg yiseggasen-nni ay d-iḍefren. 

Adrar n Pinatubo d yiwen seg wezrar-nni n yedraren iburkaniyen ay d-yezgan deg weḥric utrim (aγerbi) n tegzirt n Luzon [deg ugafa (nord) n Filippin]). Yuγ lḥal, tarkamt-nni (éruption) ay d-yellan deg 1991 deg Pinatubo, ur telli d nettat ay d tamezwarut, wanag tarkamt taqburt akk yettwassnen fell-as tella-d azal n 5500 n yiseggasen aya, sakkin tḥuza-t terkamt niḍen azal n 3000 n yiseggasen, ma d tis kraḍ, d tin ay d-yellan 500 n yiseggasen aya. 

Tadyant ay yessawḍen adrar n Pinatubo ad yerkem nettat d tizenzelt-nni n 7,8 n tfesniwin ay d-iwten azal n 100 n yikilumitren deg ugafa-agmuḍan (nord-est) n tama n Pinatubo, deg Yulyu 1990. Yuγ lḥal, d tizenzelt-nni ay yulsen tessak-id aburkan n Pinatubo. 

Deg tlemmast n Meγres 1991, imezdaγen n tuddar ay d-yezzin i wedrar n Pinatubo bdan ttḥulfun i tzenzlin, yerna imassanen n yiburkanen rran-d lwelha-nsen γer wedrar-a. Yuγ lḥal, azal n 30.000 n medden ay yeddren γef yibeṛdiyen n wedrar n Pinatubo qbel ad d-yili uxeṣṣar-nni. Deg wass n 2 Yebrir, llan-d kra n yiṭṭerḍiqen deg uburkan-nni, ffγen-d seg-sen yiγden yerna ssamsen i tuddar-nni ay iqerben γer uburkan. Deg wayyur-nni, iduba (autorités) srewlen azal n 5000 n medden seg-inna. 

Tizenzlin ed yiṭṭerḍiqen kemmlen ttilin-d. Deg wass n 5 Yunyu, iduba (autorités) rran tama-nni deg weswir n uεeyyen (niveau ḍalerte) wis 3, yerna teqqim akken snat n ledwaṛ, imi ay tella tugdi i wakken ad d-tili terkamt (éruption) d tameqrant. Deg wass n 7 Yunyu, aburkan-nni yebda yettḍeggir-d yettenγal-d seg-s weẓru yefsin, dγa d aya ay yessulyen aswir n uεeyyen γer wis 5 deg wass n 9 Yunyu. Imir-nni, iban aburkan-nni yella itteddu ad yeṭṭerḍeq. Γef waya, iduba srewlen akk medden ay izedγen deg temdewweṛt n 20 n yikilumitren ay d-yezzin γef uburkan-nni (25000 n yemdanen). 

 

Yuγ lḥal, Imarikaniyen llan, imir-nni, sεan asadur aserdasi (base militaire) deg tama-nni (Clark Air Base). Azekka-nni (10 Yunyu), imi ay yella la irennu ccwal, igen yesserwel 18.000-nni n yiserdasen ed twaculin-nsen ay izedγen deg usadur-nni. Srekben-ten deg yiγerruba ay iqelεen seg teγsart (station) Subic Bay. Amur ameqran seg-sen qqlen γer Yiwunak Yeddukklen. Deg wass n 12 Yunyu, iduba rnan srewlen ula d medden ay izedγen deg temdewweṛt n 30 n yikilumitren γef uburkan-nni, dγa yuweḍ wemḍan (nombre) n wid ay srewlen γer 58.000 n medden. 

Deg wass n 15 Yunyu, γef 1:42 n tmeddit, tebda-d terkamt (éruption) n wedrar n Pinatubo. Tarkamt-nni teqqim tesεa n tsaεtin. Mi thudd tqacuct n wedrar n Pinatubo, wtent-d aṭas n tzenzlin timeqranin. Ahuddu-nni yexleq-d taqaẓant (caldeira – d amruj ameqran) hrawen 2,5 n yikilumitren deg wedrar-nni n Pinatubo. Nnig waya, adrar-nni ay yellan zik εlay 1745 n lmitrat, yuder-d leεli-nnes γer 1485 n lmitrat. 

Tarkamt (éruption) n wedrar n Pinatubo tella-d swaswa kan deg lweqt aydeg d-yella daγen ugengam (tempête) n Yunya. Agengam-nni iḥuza yiwet n tama ay d-yezgan 75 yikilumitṛen deg ugafa-agmuḍan (nord-est) n wedrar n Pinatubo, yerna yuwey-d yid-s ageffur ameqran. Iγden ay d-iḍegger uburkan-nni xelḍen ed yiraggen n waman, dγa iwet-d ugeffur s yiγden deg qrib akk timiwa n tegzirt n Luzon. Iγden ssan akk tamurt. Deg yiwen n wemkan ay d-yezgan azal n 10 n yikilumitren deg wenẓul-utrim (sud-ouest) n uburkan-nni, iγden gan-d yiwet n tissi (couche) ay yuwḍen γer 33 n yisantimitren ! Iγden dlen azal n 2000 n yikilumitren imkuẓen (km2) s yiwet n tissi n wazal n 10 n yisantimitren. Ad ilin mmuten gar 200 ed 800 n medden (leḥsabat mgerraden), yerna amur ameqran deg-sen mmuten mi d-hudden fell-asen yixxamen-nsen ur nessaweḍ ad refden lmizan n yiγden-nni. Lemmer agengam (tempête) n Yunya ur d-yekki seg-inna, tili ur ttmettaten wanect-nni akk n medden. 

 


Nnig yiγden-nni, adrar n Pinatubo yessusef-d gar 15 ed 30 n yimelyunen n yiṭunen n wedyuksid n ukebri. Yuγ lḥal, mi ara yexleḍ lgaz n wedyuksid n ukebri akked waman ed wuksijin, itteqqal d amaγus n ukebri (acide sulfirique), yerna aya yessemγar amruj-nni n wuzun. Ugar n 90% seg tenga (matière) ay d-yessusef uburkan-nni teffeγ-d deg tesεa-nni n tsaεtin aydeg d-tella terkamt-nni, deg wass n 15 Yunyu. 

Mi d-yeṭṭerḍeq uburkan n Pinatubo, awwu-nni n terkamt-nnes (aydeg xelḍen lgazat ed yiγden) yuley γer yigenni deg snat-nni n tsaεtin timezwura n terkamt, yerna yuweḍ arma ay d 34 n ikilumitren deg leεli, am wakken ay yuweḍ γer 400 n yikilumitren deg tehri. Yuγ lḥal, seg wasmi ay d-teḍra terkamt n uburkan n Krakatau (deg Indunisya, deg 1883), werjin yerna yeḍra-d uxeṣṣar ameqran deg tegnewt (atmosphère) n tegnit (terre) am tin n Pinatubo. Yuγ lḥal, awwu ay d-yeffγen seg uburkan-a yugar 10 n tikkal awwu ay d-yeffγen seg uburkan amarikani n Saint Helens, deg 1980. Asigna n wawwu-a yezreε deg umaḍal deg sin-nni n ledwaṛ ay d-iḍefren, yerna, aseggas sakkin, ayen aγebbar-nnes idel akk amaḍal. Yuγ lḥal, deg 1992 ed 1993, amruj n wuzun, deg Tentakṛktit, yuweḍ γer yiwet n tiddi (taille) ay werjin yuweḍ-itt uqbel. 

Asigna-nni n uburkan n Pinatubo yessenqes ula d taẓγelt (température) n umaḍal. Deg 1992 ed 1993, taẓγelt talemmast deg uzimnaḍal n ugafa (hémisphère nord) tenqes s 0,5° ed 0,6°, yerna tenqes s 0,4 ed 0,5 deg wakk timiwa n umaḍal. Anqas afellay (maximal) akk n teẓγelt yella-d deg Γuct n 1992, anda ay tenqes teẓγelt s 0,73° ! Nnig waya, imassanen ttwalin tarkamt-nni (éruption) n Pinatubo turar dduṛ deg yiḥemmalen-nni imeqranen ay d-yellan deg wasif n Mississippi deg 1993 (deg Yiwunak Yeddukklen), akked takewt-nni tameqrant ay iḥuzan tama n Ssaḥel, deg Tefriqt, deg tallit-nni. Deg Yiwunak Yeddukklen, anebdu n 1992 yella-d d anebdu wis tlata aḥmayan akk yerna d anebdu wis tlata aydeg d-iwet aṭas akk n ugeffur deg 77-nni n yiseggasen ineggura. 

Yuγ lḥal, tarkamt (éruption) n wedrar n Pinatubo tessasmeḍ amaḍal ugar n tarat-nni (phénomène) n El Niño (ay yellan la d-tettili deg tallit-nni), yerna ixeṣṣaren-nnes γef wuzun ugaren wid n lgazat-nni ay yessamasen tignewt. 

 

Iγden hudden aṭas n yexxamen deg Pinatubo


Aburkan n Pinatubo yegla-d s yixeṣṣaren imeqranen γef yemdanen. Nnig n 800-nni n medden ara yilin mmuten, tarkamt-a (éruption) tegla-d s lexṣara n qrib 500 n yimelyunen n yidulaṛen. Aṭas n medden ay yesṛuḥen ayla-nsen, yerna tadamsa thudd arma ay d llsas. Deg 1991, aburkan-nni ihudd 4979 n yexxamen, am wakken ay yeswaγ 70.257 n yexxamen niḍen. Deg useggas-nni ay d-iḍefren, axeṣṣar n terkamt n Pinatubo ikemmel yesswaγay tigzirt n Luzon. Yuγ lḥal, mi ara d-yeγli ugeffur, iγden-nni ay d-yeγlin deg tama n uburkan-nni ttawyen-ten-id waman, dγa tteqqalen d iḥemmalen n waluḍ umi γγaren „ilahaṛen“. 3281 n yexxamen ay ihudden, yerna 3137 n yexxamen niḍen rnan ttwaγen s yixeṣṣaren-a ay yeglan s tmeddurt n waṭas n yemdanen ed yiγersiwen. Nnig waya, deg Γuct n 1992, yerna yerkem uburkan-nni tikkelt niḍen, yerna yenγa 72 n yemdanen. 

Iserdasen imarikaniyen werjin qqlen γer Usadur Agenwan (base aérienne) n Clark, yerna rran-t i udabu afilippini deg 6 Nwembeṛ, 1991. Ar ass-a mazal adabu n tmurt-a yettkemmil deg lebni ed uṣeggem n wayen akk ay yessexṣer uburkan-nni. 

Sγur Matt Rosenberg
Tasuqilt sγur Omar Mouffok (www.imedyazen.com
Taγbalut: http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/pinatubo.htm

Rnum rzum γef : http://takelsertit.pbworks.com/Filippin:-Ighallen-imarikaniyen
-"inebgawen"

 

 

 

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