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Tadiwennit ed Rachid Bellil - Akk ayen yellan d aɣerfan yettwaḥqer

Page history last edited by Taftilt Taliktrunit 11 years ago

 

*Aɣerfan: populaire

 

Rachid Bellil 

 

** Rachid Bellil: d amsenmetti (sociologue), d amnadi deg CNRPAH n Ldzayer [Centre National de Recherches Préhistoriques, Anthropologiques et Historiques – Ammas Aγelnaw n Unadi deg Uzarmezruy, Tasnamdant ed Umezruy)

 

Deg tdiwennit-a (interview), Rachid Bellil yessawel-d γef temsalt n tsekla tatlayt (littrature orale). Tasekla-a d awal yerna d tigawt [action] ay d-yesskanayen amek tettxemmim kra n tmetti γef yiman-nnes ed wamek ay tettwali amaḍal deg kra n tallit n tudert-nnes. D acu kan, imi ass-a la d-yettili ubeddel ameqran deg tmetti, tella tugdi γef wengar n tsekla-a.

 

- D acu-t wemkan n tsekla tatlayt (littérature orale) deg unadi ussnan (scientifique) n wass-a, deg Ldzayer ?

 

- Amkan-nnes d amecṭuḥ deg wenrar-a. Yessekf ad d-nesmekti, iqeddicen imezwura ay d-yemmugen γef tsekla tatlayt lulen-d deg tallit n tsehrest (colonisation). Imir-nni, llan-d yiserdasen, imesnilsiyen (linguistes) ed Yibabaten Imellalen ifṛensisen ay iqedcen deg wenrar n welqaḍ n tsekla tatlayt. Dγa imdanen-a uraren dduṛ d ameqran deg wanect-a. Deg tallit-nni daγen, banen-d ula d Idzayriyen ay yegren iman-nsen deg wenrar-a, am Belkassem Ben Sedira, Si Amar U Saεid Boulifa akked Mouloud Feraoun. Imir-nni, ffγen-d wammuden n yisefra ed tfekkiwin (corpus) n yeḍrisen aydeg d-ddant tmucuha, isefra, tiḥkayin n umezruy ed yeḍrisen γef titnugṛafit (ethnographie) ed tmeddurt n ssaddat. Iqeddicen-a sεan azal d ameqran deg tezrawin (études) n tesnilsit (linguistique), n titnugṛafit ed tesnemdant. D acu kan, yessekf ad neg amgerrad gar tsekla tatlayt (littérature orale) ed wansayen itlayen (traditions orales).

 

Ssi Ɛmeṛ U Saɛid Bulifa

 

Yuγ lḥal, ansayen itlayen (traditions orales) qqnen γer titnugṛafit. Ayen ay d-yettwalqaḍen d ansayen itlayen sseqdacen-t deg tezrawt (étude) n tuddart neγ n tewsatin (leεṛac). Ma d tasekla tatlayt (literature orale) llant deg-s, s umata, timucuha ed yisefra; llant daγen deg-s tamayin (légendes). D acu kan, sin-a n yinurar myekcamen gar-asen imi, γef umedya (lemtel), nezmer ad naf ansayen itlayen deg yisefra.

 

Sdeffir n uzarug (indépendance), tasekla tatlayt (littérature orale) tadzayrit rran-tt deg rrif, teγli deg meḥyaf, ttmuqqulen-tt s tmuγli n tḥeqranit, imi Awanak (ddula) yesmenyaf ad yekf azal i yedles amassan (culture savante) ed yedles yettwarun. Imnadiyen idzayriyen ay yerran lwelha-nsen γer wenrar n tsekla tatlayt ur ggiten. Γas akken, ffγen-d yedlisen γef tsekla tatlayt tamaziγt. Ma deg wenrar n tsekla tatlayt s taεṛabt [taγerfant – populaire], ur ggiten, ladγa imi idles n taεṛabt taγerfant ttwalin-t d idles ineqsen, yerna iles-nnes d talγa kan (forme) ixeṣ̣ren n taεṛabt takelsakt (classique), dγa γef wayenni ay tt-yeḥqer udabu seg yidis n tesnakta (idéologie). Yuγ lḥal, akk ayen yellan d aγerfan (populaire) yettwaḥqer. Dγa nettwali adabu yuwey-d snat n tikliwin yemgerraden akked tmetti: seg tama, yeḍfer tasnakta tamesaγreft (idéologie populiste), seg tama niḍen, yeḥqer idles aγerfan (culture populaire).

 

Γas akken, llan yemnadiyen ay yellan qeddcen beṛṛa i tsuda tunṣ̣ibin (institutions officielles).  Ma seg yidis n tsuda, llan-d daγen yinadiyen ay yella itteg Wammas n yinadiyen n tesnemdant, n uzarmezruy ed titnugṛafit (Centre de recherches anthropologiques, préhistoriques et ethnographies – CRAPE) ay yeqqlen ass-a d CNRPAH.

 

Mouloud Mammeri

 

Deg tazwara, CRAPE yella yelha-d ladγa s tesnemdant, azarmezruy ed titnugṛafit. Sakkin, d Mouloud Mammeri ay d-yeskecmen γer CRAPE anadi γef tsekla tatlayt, tasnilsit ed umezruy atlay (histoire orale). Deg wenrar-a dγa, nezmer ad d-nebder iqeddicen n Malha Benbrahim aydeg d-telqeḍ yerna tezrew (étudier) isefra n wezbu (résistance) n weγref (cceεb) ay iqublen tasehrest (colonisation). Mammeri yessaleγ-d (former) daγen tarbaεt n yelmeẓyen i lmend n unadi deg wenrar-a, am wakken ay yeqdec ed yemnadiyen ibeṛṛaniyen. D acu kan, asmi ay yuwey tastaγt-nnes (lantrit) deg 1979, anadi γef tsekla tatlayt yebda yettmettat.

 

- Yiwen seg llsisan yetturaren dduṛ d ameqran deg tsekla tatlayt (littérature orale) netta d anermis-nni (contact) yettilin gar win d-yettinin ed win isellen. D acu kan, mi ara teqqel tsekla tatlayt d tasekla yuran, anermis-nni ur t-nettaf deg-s. Nezmer ad nwali aya d lexṣ̣aṣ̣ ? Yerna ma yella akka ay yella lḥal, amek ay nezmer ad t-nreqqeε ?

 

- D tidet, aya d lexṣ̣aṣ̣. Win ay d-yettinin, win ay d-yesnulfuyen tasekla tatlayt (littérature orale), win ay tt-yessawaḍen i medden d amdan ay yesεan anermis ed win ay as-isellen neγ ed wegdud (public). Yuγ lḥal, assiweḍ n tsekla tatlayt γer medden d ayen yesεan tiwtilin (ccuruḍ), gar-asent llant tewtilin tifekkanin (corporelles). Tella daγen temsalt n wemkan. Win ay d-yettinin tasekla tatlayt, lemmer ad yili deg tejmaεt, yessekf fell-as ad yessen ad d-yawey tikli iwutan, d tin ay d-ttawyen medden mi ara ssiwlen deg tejmaεt. Deg yiger, isefra ay ttemyinin gar-asen yimeksawen ur yezmir yiwen ad ten-id-yales deg taddart imi tikkal yettili waya d lεib. Mi ara yilin yimeksawen gar-asen, beṛṛa i taddart, zemren ad d-bedren tiγawsiwin ur yezmir yiwen ad tent-id-yebder deg twacult n taddart. Deg lemqamat, llant tegnatin ay yettajjan amdan ad d-yemsel tasekla tatlayt (littérature orale) iwutan imukan am wi. Tasekla tatlayt d tasekla n terbaεt, n tmetti. Win ay tt-id-yettgen ur la d-itteg tasekla-a i yiman-nnes kan. Seg tama niḍen, amedyaz deg tsekla-a ur t-ttxelliṣ̣en medden akken ad d-yesnulfu neγ ad d-yini isefra. Aya ulac-it akk deg wenrar-a. Maca mi ara tekcem tsekla-a tatlayt γer ttawilat n tmesliwt ed tmeẓriwt [tisfifin, iḍebsiyen], medden ad qqlen ad as-sellen yal yiwen i yiman-nnes, am mi ara neqqar adlis. D acu kan, γas mi ara d-tettwakles (enregistrer) tasekla-a, nezmer ad as-nsel deg terbaεt.

 

Tagrawt n uhellil deg Timimun (tawilayt n Wedrar - Ldzayer)

 

- Tasekla, deg ddehn n medden, tezga teqqen γer tira, maca nessawal-d daγen γef tsekla tatlayt (orale). Ur yelli wugur deg wanect-a ? Aya ur d tazengurda (paradoxe) ?

 

- Awal-a n « tsekla tatlayt » yettwabna s sin yimeslayen yemyegḍalen (ṣ̣opposer) deg unamek, maca yettusseqdac deg wenrar n welqaḍ n tfekkiwin (corpus) deg tesnilsit (linguistique). Skud timetti tessawal iles-nnes, ur tettḥulfu terra-tt tmara ad t-taru. D acu kan, mi ara tesεu tmetti-nni anermis (contact) akked tγerma (civilisation) yesεan tira, ad tagad tmetti-nni γef yiman-nnes ad tenger, dγa ad tebγu ad tḥudd iman-nnes. Γef waya, timetti ad teddem amrig (leslaḥ) n wid-nni ay tt-yernan, ad teddem tira, yerna ad tent-tesseqdec i wakken ad d-tessukkes idles ed tsekla-nnes nettat.

 

Zik, Lislam yella γer Yimaziγen d atlay (oral). D acu kan, llan gar-asen wid yeγran, ddren deg sin n yimaḍalen yemgerraden [amaḍal n tatlayt (oralit) ed win n tira]. Dγa mi ara ḥwijen medden ad arun kra, am leεqed γef umedya (lemtel), d wid-nni yeγran umi tettren aya. Imdanen-a yeγran n tmetti yesεan tasekla tatlayt (littérature) zemren daγen ad ttekkin deg wesnulfu ed ussiweḍ n tsekla tatlayt. Dγa d aya umi isemma umesnemdan (anthropologue) anglizi Jack Goody « asseqdec imlesses (usage restreint)” n tira.

 

Mi ara yili d adabu alemmas ay iḥekmen, timetti tesseqdac tira i wakken ad d-teḥrez tigemmi-nnes (patrimoine), dγa tettekk seg tegnit n tatlayt (oralité) γer tin n tira. Sakkin, tettetter i udabu ad yesteεṛef s yiles n tmetti-nni, s tsekla-nnes ed wansayen-nnes itlayen, am wakken ara tetter ad yettusselmed akk waya deg uγerbaz. D acu kan, wid ay d-ibeddun tikli-a d imawlan n tmetti-nni ay yettekkan deg tedγert. Yuγ lḥal, d nitni ay yeγran, maca daγen, d nitni ay tḥuza tridlest (acculturation) ugar n wakk ayt tmetti-nsen, bitt ddren beṛṛa akk i tmetti-nsen, dγa d aya ay ten-yettajjan, mi ara d-ssiwḍen tigemmi n tmetti-nsen, ttbeddilen-tt imi ay as-rennun tiγawsiwin ay d-kesben seg yedles n wiyaḍ. Yuγ lḥal, mi ara yettεumu yiwen deg yedles n kra n tmetti niḍen, ad iḥulfu ugar i umihi (danger) ay yeggunin idles-nnes. Dγa, arma nekka-d γef tridlest ara nezmer ad naki i ḍḍeεfan ed lexṣ̣aṣ̣ n yedles-nneγ. 

 

Tameṭṭut yekkaten imẓad ɣer Yimucaɣ

 

Taridlest (acculturation) d abrid n umezruy ay yettḥettimen γef kra n tmetti ad tesεu assaγen (relations) akked tmetti niḍen ay tt-yernan, yerna wid ay d-yekkan γef tridlest ttwalin-tt d taγawsa yettḍurrun timetti s telqey. Amdan ay tḥuza tridlest yesṛuḥuy idles-nnes, yerna s weḍfar n yedles n wiyaḍ, yetthuddu iman-nnes. Win ara tḥaz tridlest, ad d-yaf iman-nnes iqubel wiyaḍ (wid ay t-yernan), dγa d aya ara t-iḥettmen ad yekcem deg yedles-nsen [ed ad yesṛuḥ idles-nnes]. Win yettwarnan am wakka ad yaki yessekf fell-as ad d-yawey sγur wayeḍ allalen ayyes yessekf ad yeḥrez idles-nnes. Tagnit-a aydeg idles yerna wayeḍ, aydeg wid yettwarnan γlin deg tridlest d tin ay yettajjan wid yettwarnan, wid yesṛuḥen idles-nsen, “ad ten-id-tṣ̣aḥ tsenduqt n ttawilat” ayyes ara ḥudden γef yedles-nsen. Gar ttawilat-a ad naf tirawt, asselmed ed unadi. D acu kan, llan wid yettwarnan, mi ara γlin deg tridlest, ad sseḍlamen iman-nsen imi ay sṛuḥen idles-nsen. Dγa d aya ara ten-yessiwḍen γer tegnit aydeg ara agin wiyaḍ, dγa ad agin ad sqedcen ula d “tasenduqt-nni n ttawilat” n wiyaḍ ay izemren ad tenfeε deg ussider n yedles-nsen. Akken ay d-yenna Mammeri: “Amdan yettwaḥeqren, mi ara yeḥbes iman-nnes deg ujeγlal n wayen kan ay yeḥseb d ayla-nnes, ad d-yaf iman-nnes yeγli deg tesraft aydeg ur ineqqes, ur yettnerni”. Maca, “werjin yezmer yiwen ad d-yerr tudert i yeglan [horizons] ay yesṛuḥ, wanag yessekf fell-as ad d-yesbadu (définir) iglan imaynuten”.

 

- Tasekla tatlayt (littérature orale) d aḥric seg wamek ay tettmuqqul tmetti amaḍal. Maca timetti-a tezga tettedder deg ubeddel ay yerzan aṭas n yidisan γef tikkelt. Ihi amek ay as-tḍerru i tmuγli-a n umaḍal sdat yibeddilen-a ? Timuγliwin-a ttuḥettment ad negrent ?

 

Tamacahut tetteg aṭas n lecγal deg tmetti. Ssawalen-tt-id medden i yigerdan. Maca mi ara nili deg tegnit aydeg agrud ur d tawacult ay t-id-imesslen akken ad yili d amaslaḍ (membre) n tmetti, tamacahut ad teqqel ur tezmir ad turar dduṛ-a. Mi ara qqlen yimawlan akked yigerdan d aγerbaz ay ten-id-imesslen, amdan-nni ay asen-d-yessawaḍen tamussni s wawal ad yettwaḥqer. Iznatiyen n Yiguraren, γef leḥsab n lefhama-nsen n ddin, ttinin-d: “Timucuha d tikerkas, yerna Ṛebbi ur iḥemmel tikerkas, dγa ur Iḥemmel timucuha”. Dγa, γer-sen, ma yella yiwen d aneflas (lmumen), ur yessekf ad yamen timucuha. Aya d ayen ay yessawḍen, γer-sen, γer weḥqar azamal (symbolique) n tmucuha, maca aya yegla-d s tγawsiwin n dyiri deg wenrar-a n tsekla tatlayt. Yuγ lḥal, γer-sen, win ay d-iḥekkun timucuha ur yesεi azal neγ amkan-nnes meḥqur.

 

- Ihi d acu ay yessekf ad t-neg akken ad d-nessukkes tigemmit tatlayt (patrimoine oral) seg wengar ?

 

- Tirawt tettajja-aγ ad neḥrez tasekla tatlayt (littérature orale) yerna ad tt-nesseddu, ad tt-nessiweḍ i medden war ma terra tmara ad yili win akken ay tt-id-yesnulfan. S waya, tasekla-a yezmer ad tt-iγer ama d amdan i yiman-nnes, ama d medden s umata. Amezgun, ssinima ed uẓawan zemren ad uraren dduṛ-a n weḥraz akked ussiweḍ. Nekni γer-neγ, d imẓawanen (musiciens) ay yetturaren dduṛ-a, imi, yettban-iyi-d, deg uẓawan, iḥeddeṛ ama d anaẓur (afennan), ama d wid ara as-yeslen. Yuγ lḥal, deg tmetti-nneγ, medden ur d-cligen seg yedlisen, deg wakud aydeg ttxelliṣ̣en akken ad nezzhen i yibarazen (galas).

 

- D acu-t wazal n ccγel ay tetturar tsekla tatlayt deg tmetti ?

 

- Timucuha d iqeddicen ur nessin anwa ay ten-id-yesnulfan, yerna ur nettnadi ad t-nessen. Timucuha d ayen ay d-tesnulfa tmetti yerna nnulfant-d i tmetti-nni. Ccγel-nsent netta d assiweḍ, d asselmed n tmussni ed wazalen (valeurs) yellan γer tmetti-nni. Deg tmedyazt (poésie), nettaf isefra ur nessin anwa ay ten-id-yesnulfan. Llan daγen yisefra ay d-nnan yimedyazen yesεan azal meγγren γer medden. Asefru yettwabnay γef umedya (modèle) irekden. D aya umi ara nger tamawt mi ara nwali isefra-nni n tesεa yefyar (vers) n Ssi Muḥ U Mḥend. Llan daγen yisefra ay bnan medden γef yisefra ay d-snulfan wiyaḍ. Rennun-asen neγ ssenqasen-asen ifyar ed yimeslayen. Isefra-a umi rnan kra ttekken γef uγerbal n medden ay asen-isellen, yerna din ara d-iban ma yella isefra-a mṣ̣adan ed wazalen n tmetti neγ xulfen-ten. Neggar tamawt ula d timetti tezmer ad tessenqes afyir neγ ameslay seg usefru. D acu kan, imeksawen neγ tisednan gar-asent, zemren ad ffγen i wazalen-nni n tmetti yerna ad d-bedren -deg yisefra ay ttemyinin- iṭabuten ur d-nettwabdar deg tmetti s umata. Wid ay yessnen isefra-a dima ttafen-d tiswiεin, amkan neγ imdanen ara asen-yeslen mi ara d-inin isefra-a.

 

 

Adlis n M. Mammeri ɣef yisefra n uhellil n Tgurarin (Timimun)

 

- Tigemmi tatlayt (patrimoine oral) tesskanay-d amek ay tettwabna tmetti ay tt-ilan deg kra n tallit seg tudert-nnes ?

 

- Deg tsekla tatlayt (littérature prale), ttbanen-d wazalen (valeurs) n tmetti war ma yebγa bab-nnes ad ten-id-yesban, war ma yuki s weḥraz-nsen neγ s uqader n wazalen n tmetti-nnes. Tuṛkist (orchestre) tessen aẓawan (musique). Yal yiwen seg wid yettekkan deg-s yessen ad yurar amur-nnes seg uẓawan war ma iger-d yiγef n tuṛkist (chef ḍorchestre) iman-nnes. Yal yiwen seg-sen yessen azalen, ilugan ed yimenzayen n tmetti-nnes. D aya umi nettini “asmetti (socialisation)” deg ṣ̣ṣ̣enf-a n tmetti tatlayt (société orale). Dγa γef waya ay d-yenna Pierre Bourdieu γef temsalt-a :  « timetti tatlayt d timetti ay yekkaten aẓawan war iγef n tuṛkist”.

 

Sγur Amnay Idir

Tasuqilt : Omar Mouffok

Taγbalut : El Watan – 28 Yulyu 2008 

 


 

Amagrad ay d-itteddun: 

 

Kra n tenfaliyin deg wawal n teqbaylit  (sɣur Hamid Oubagha)

 


 

Qqel ɣer wegbur : 

 

Taftilt Taliktṛunit - Uḍḍun 1

 


 

Qqel ɣer usebter n umager

 

 


 

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