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Lfayda n yibeεεac

Page history last edited by Taftilt Taliktrunit 13 years, 5 months ago

 

Sγur Peter Harris ed Peter G. Kevan 
Taγbalut: The Canadian Encyclopedia 

 

Tizizwit n tamemt


Amur ameqran deg yibeεεac yellan deg umaḍal nefεen yerna tturaren aṭas n ledwaṛ yelhan deg twennaḍt. Deg tidet, ibeεεac yettḍurrun ur ttawḍen 1% seg wakk leṣnaf n yibeεεac yellan. Aṭas n leṣnaf n yegḍaḍ ed yigelmaḍen (reptiles) ay yeddren ala s wucci n yibeεεac, nnig waya, lemmer ur d ibeεεac, ur d-yettili ufarer (pollinisation) n yemγan, yerna ineggura-a ur ttefruruxen. Deg kra n tmura, amur ameqran seg ufarer d izan ed yiferṭeṭṭuten ay d-ilehhun yid-s. Ma d ibeεεac ay ittetten imγan, ula d nitni ttekkayen deg weḍman n tuggta n leṣnaf n yemgerraden n yemγan, yerna ssenqasen seg yemγan-nni ay izemren ad ḍurren wiyaḍ s wefrurex-nsen ameqran. Seg tama niḍen, kra n yibeεεac ay ittetten imγan ttεawanen ineggura-a akken ad d-xelfen yerna ad jehden xir. S waya, ibeεεac-nni ay itteddren deg lejdari n yisekla (ttjuṛ) tturaren dduṛ deg wexlaf n tẓegwa. Deg tgara, ur yessekf ad nettu ibeεεac sεan dduṛ d ameqran, daγen, deg ussizdeg n wayen akk yettmettaten deg twennaḍt. 

Ibeεεac ṣelḥen i wucci 

Deg waṭas n tmiwa n umaḍal, imdanen sseqdacen ibeεεac deg wucci (γef umedya, ajṛad ed wakuz n tezdayin ttmaccan). Yuγ lḥal, ibeεεac ttakfen-d aṭas n tefṛutinin (protéines) akked wafud (énergie) i tfekka. Samuel Hearne, deg weγmis-nnes udmawan, deg 1771, yenna-d yella yiwen n yemḍebber n Yiskimuten iḥemmel ad yecc tiwekkiwin n uduglim (hypoderme, Hypoderma), yerna llan ttinin-d lbenna-nsent am tin n waḍil n wuccen (groseille). D acu kan, aṭas n medden, ass-a, ur ḥemmlen ad xaylen iman-nsen ttetten ibeεεac. Deg Kanada, Aduktur B. Hocking n Tesdawit n Alberta, yeεreḍ ad iṛebbi tiwekkiwin n tzizwa i wakken ad ttnuzunt d afaris (produit), am wakk ayen ay d-ttakfen tzizwa yerna sseqdacen-t medden, maca tarmit-nnes (ttejṛiba) ur terbiḥ. Γas akken, aṭas n medden ay ittetten ibeεεac (war ma ukin) deg wudi, aγrum ed wagil (lfaṛina) ay ttetten yal ass. 

Ifarisen* n yibeεεac

*produits 

Afaris (produit) ay sseqdacen aṭas yemdanen yerna yekka-d seg yibeεεac netta d tamemt. D acu kan, imdanen ttekksen-d daγen leḥrir seg yiwen n uferṭeṭṭu, am wakken ay d-ttekksen taynust (gomme-laque) seg yiwen n ubeεεuc ay itteddren deg tneqlin n Asya. Nttekkes-d daγen ssbiγa tazewwaγt seg yiwet n tqermizt (cochenille) ay itteddren γef tṣebbarin, yerna ssbiγa-nni, γas yiwet n tallit, jjan-tt ur tt-sseqdacen, maca ass-a qqlen γer-s tikkelt niḍen, imi ssbiγat-nni timguranin (industrielles) ay ttgen i wucci (ay d-ttekksen seg uqeḍran n yireg (charbon) yelfa-d ttgent-d akensir (cancer). Ibeεεac sεan, daγen, azal ameqran deg yinadiyen ussnanen, ladγa deg tussna n yijinen [génétique], imi ay ttefruruxen s tazzla, yerna fessus γef yimassanen ad ḍefren tisutwin-nsen (lejyal). Seg tama niḍen, ibeεεac am yiferṭeṭṭuten, timzerγlin (libellules) ed yixenfusen seg zik ay kecmen deg tsekla, taẓuri ed uẓawan n yemdanen. 

 

Tawekka n leḥrir yessefrurux-itt-id yiwen n uferṭeṭṭu


Ibeεεac deg udawi n wemdan ed twennaḍt 

Zik, asmi werεad ur d-nnulfan yisafaren ineγγen imikṛuben, medden llan sseqdacen tiwekkiwin n yizan i lmend n ussizdeg n yideddiyen yessewwen, yerna γas ma yella tiwekkiwin-a ttenkarent deg weksum yerkan, maca mi ara ilint deg udeddi, d aksum kan yemmuten ay ttettent yerna ttajjant aksum amuddir. Ass-a, tiwekkiwin-a mazal nefεent imi yes-sent ay ẓerren yemsujjiyen (ḍḍebba) n lqanun melmi ay yemmut kra n wemdan ay d-ufan deg beṛṛa. 

Tuggta n leṣnaf n yibeεεac deg twennaḍt, ladγa deg waman, d tin ay d-yesskanayen ma yella tawennaḍt bxir ay tella neγ ala. Yuγ lḥal, mi ara neqsen yibeεεac n waman yeddren deg kra n wemkan, aya yesskanay-d i yimassanen amkan-nni yumes, deg lweqt aydeg mi ara ggten, aya yesskanay-d amkan-nni la t-id-tteqqal tudert yerna zeddig. Imassanen ssenqaden daγen leṣnaf n yibeεεac yeddren deg wakal, imi, mi ara nḍerren yineggura-a, aya yesskanay-d lmaḍerra ay yezmer ad d-yeglu yes-s lḥamu n umaḍal. 

Ibeεεac ed ufarer*

*pollinisation 

Azal n 80% seg yemγan ay nttett d iγersiwen ay ten-yettεawanen deg ufarer (pollinisation), yerna qrib akk iγersiwen-a d ibeεεac. Deg tmurt am Kanada, dduṛ ay tturarent tzizwa deg ufarer yesserbaḥ-as-d i tmurt-a azal n umelyaṛ n yidulaṛen yal aseggas deg tfellaḥt ! Deg Temrikt n Ugafa, imeksawen n tzizwa ttawyen timerwin n yigiman (dizaines de milliers) n teγrasin seg wemkan γer wayeḍ i wakken tizizwa-nsen ad zerεent tawrent n tjejjigin seg yemγi γer wayeḍ, dγa d aya ay yettajjan tafellaḥt ad terbeḥ. Yuγ lḥal, tizizwa ssirirent (féconder) imγan ed yisekla am tḍeffa (titteffaḥin), tifiras, tireḍlimin (ḥebb lemluk), axyar ed yemγan ay d-yettakfen zzerriεa ayyes ttgen zzit. Imγi n wadag (luzerne) d yiwet n tzizwit igezzmen afriwen ay t-yessiriren. Taxsayt tesεa yiwen n ṣṣenf n tzizwa ay tt-yessiriren deg tmiwa tigmuḍanin (ticerqiyin) n Kanada. Aḍil n lexla (myrtille) llan aṭas n leṣnaf n tzizwa tiweḥciyin ay yettekkayen deg ussirer-nnes, ma d imγi n uṭuka (canneberge) d igayemruten ay t-yessiriren. Ula d ifellaḥen ay d-yesseqdacen ixxamen n weplastik, sseqdacen, daγen igayemruten i lmend n ussirer n ṭumaṭic ed yifelfel. Deg tmura yeḥman, d tizit ay yessiriren akakaw, yerna d akuz ay yessiriren tizdayin n zzit. 

 

Izinzer deg tjejjigt 


Asseqdec n yibeεεac i lmend n uḥuddu n tfellaḥt 

Yiwet seg trebbaε timeqranin akk n yibeεεac d arẓaẓen ijenṭiḍen (parasites), yerna sεan azal n 200.000 n leṣnaf. Arẓaẓen-a ttemmγen γef yibeεεac niḍen, yerna ttarwen deg-sen timellalin, dγa ttekkayen deg ussenqes n waṭas n yibeεεac ay izemren ad ḍurren amdan. Amur ameqran seg yifellaḥen ay yesfulluḥen ṭumaṭic ed wexyar deg yexxamen n weplastik, deg Kanada, sseqdacen arẓaẓen-a i wakken ad snegren izi amellal ed yibeεεac niḍen ay asen-yettḍurrun lγella-nsen, yerna s waya, ssinifen i usseqdec n yifarisen (produits) ineγγen ibeεεac ay izemren ad ḍurren tazmert n wemdan. 

Yuγ lḥal, imdanen uwyen-d ibeεεac ijenṭiḍen ula seg tmura niḍen γer tmurt-nsen akken ad ḥaṛben ibeεεac yettḍurrun tafellaḥt-nsen. Γef umedya (lemtel), deg yiseggasen n 1930, izi bu umencaṛ n tfisya [Pikonema alaskensis], yella yettnerni s waṭas yerna yekfa axeṣṣar i tẓegwa n tfisya (épicéa) deg wegmuḍ (ccerq) n Kanada. Asmi ay d-uwyen arẓaẓen ijenṭiḍen, ineggura-a bdan ssefruruxen timellalin-nsen deg yizan-nni, yerna sneṭḍen-asen i yizan-nni yiwen n wenfafad (avirus) ay ten-yesnegren. Dγa ass-a, tenqes s waṭas lmaḍerra n yizi bu umencaṛ n tfisya. 

Tikkal, medden ttawyen-d imγan seg tmura niḍen γer tmurt-nsen, sakkin imγan-nni ur ḥebbsen seg wefrurex, arma qqlen ttḍurrun. Yuγ lḥal, imγan am wi ttafen iman-nsen imi, deg tmurt-nni tamaynut wuγur ay ten-id-uwyen, ur llin yiγersiwen ara ten-yeccen neγ ara ten-iḍurren. D acu kan, deg Kanada, asmi ara d-awyen kra n yemγi, ttawyen-as-d, tikkal, abeεεuc yellan d aεdaw-nnes akken ad yeḥkem deg wefrurex-nnes. Deg Columbia Tabriṭanit (Kanada), deg yiseggasen n 1950, inefli n Saint-Jean (d yiwen n yemγi yettḍurrun ay d-uwyen seg Tuṛuft), yebda yettḍurru imγan ineṣliyen n tama-a, yerna yeqqel ur yettajja imeksawen ad sεun tuga ara ten-id-ikafen i lmal-nsen. D acu kan, Ikanadiyen uwyen-d yiwen n uxenfus ay ittetten ala inefli n Saint-Jean, yerna abeεεuc-a yessaweḍ ad yessenqes imγi-a s 99%, aya akk war ma iḍurr imγan niḍen. Yuγ lḥal, abrid-a d netta ay igerrzen akk i lmend n weḥkam deg wefrurex n yemγan yettḍurrun, yerna yettajja-aγ ad nessinef i usseqdec n yifarisen (produits) ineγγen imγan, maca, seg tama niḍen, asseqdec n yibeεεac i uḥaṛeb n yemγan yettḍurrun yettεeḍḍil akken ad d-yawey lfayda-nnes, imi, tikkal, aya yezmer ad yeṭṭef arma d 20 n yiseggasen. 

Taγeddiwt yeknan (Carduus nutans) d imγi niḍen ay d-uwyen seg Tuṛuft γer Kanada, sakkin yeqqel yettḍurru. I lmend n uḥaṛeb n yemγi-a, imnadiyen ikanadiyen sqedcen yiwen n uxenfus ay ittetten iγef n zzerriεa-nnes. Abeεεuc-a yessaweḍ ad yessenqes taγeddiwt-a yettḍurrun ama deg Kanada, ama deg tmura niḍen deg umaḍal, d taγawsa ay d-yuwyen lfayda tameqrant i tfellaḥt. 

 


Taɣeddiwt yeknan 

 

Ibeεεac yettḥuddun tawennaḍt 

Kra n yemγan sseqdacen tikeḍfin akken ad ẓẓun zzerriεa-nsen. Iεeqqayen n zzerriεa n yemγan-a sεan yiwet n tseḍḍa tamecṭuḥt ay d-ijebbden tikeḍfin. Taseḍḍa-nni tella deg-s zzit ed kra n tnegwa tikruranin (substances chimiques) ay yettajjan tikeḍfin ad zzuγrent aεeqqay-nni n zzerriεa γer temdint-nsent. Mi yuweḍ uεeqqay-nni γer temdint n tkeḍfin, tineggura-a ad ccent taseḍḍa-nni, maca ad d-jjent aεeqqay-nni war ma ḍurrent-t, yerna ad t-zzuγrent γer tgennarit (gallerie) ur ḥwajent. Tigennariyin n temdinin n tkeḍfin, ddaw wakal, ndawent, akal-nsent yelha yerna dergent γef yegḍaḍ ed yiγerdayen. Dγa d aya ay yettajjan aεeqqay-nni ad yemγi. Taẓewẓawt (violette) ed waṭas n yijejjigen niḍen n tefsut ttefruruxen s webrid-a. Taγeddiwt n wezger [Cirsium vulgare] tesεa yiwet n zzerriεa, lemmer ad tt-awyent tkeḍfin γer kra n wemkan ur yeffiγ fell-as (am teẓgi aydeg ur tezmir ad tt-tḥaz tafat n tafukt), tezmer ad tedder ddaw wakal acḥal n yiseggasen. 

 

Tikeḍfin ed ubeqqiw

 

Yuγ lḥal, tikeḍfin leqqḍent-d zzerriεa i wakken ad tt-ccent, maca tikkal, mi ara d-zzuγrent kra n uεeqqay, zemrent ad t-sṛuḥent deg webrid, dγa d ayen ara yejjen daγen aεeqqay-nni ad d-yemγi. Yuγ lḥal, assaγ (relation) yellan gar yemγi ed tkeḍḍuft d win ay ten-inefεen deg sin, imi, seg tama, imγi-nni yettaf abrid ad yefrurex ed ad tettwazreε zzerriεa-nnes deg yimukan yemgerraden, ma d takeḍḍuft tettett zzirriεa-nni neγ tetteg yes-s lεula. 

 

Aseḍḍenḍaw d abeɛɛuc amecṭuḥ mliḥ maca yetturar

dduṛ ameqran deg twennaḍt 

 

Ibeεεac tturaren daγen dduṛ deg ussizdeg ed wallus (aεiwed) n usseqdec n wayen yemmuten deg ugama. Taglist (bousier), axenfus-nni ay yettawyen tiburirin n wefraḍ (leγbar), d win ay tent-yesseqdacen i wucci, yerna yettarew deg-sent timellalin-nnes. Ixenfusen inemḍalen (Necrophora) d ibeεεac ay ittetten aksum n yiγersiyen yemmuten, yerna ttεawanen aṭas deg ussizdeg n twennaḍt seg wayen yerkan. Ixenfusen ittetten asγar ed tmadiwin (termites) ssizdigen daγen tawennaḍt seg wesγar ed yemγan yeqquren. Yuγ lḥal, timadiwin tturarent dduṛ d ameqran ula deg lehhu n wakal-nni anda ay ddrent, dγa d aya ay ineffεen imγan ed yiγersiwen niḍen. Aseḍḍenḍaw (collembole) d yiwen n ubeεεuc amecṭuḥ mliḥ, ittedder deg wakal ed yemγan. Γas ur t-ssinen waṭas n medden, yerna yewεeṛ ad t-ẓren, maca yetturar dduṛ d ameqran deg wucci n yigersalen-nni n wakal ay izemren ad ḍurren. Imassanen ttxemmimen abeεεuc-a d netta ay yessenqasen imikṛuben seg wakal, dγa d aya ay yettajjan imγan ad afen iman-nsen. 



Sγur Peter Harris ed Peter G. Kevan 
Taγbalut: The Canadian Encyclopedia
Tasuqilt sγur Omar Mouffok (www.imedyazen.com)

 

 

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